Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers

The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF – France national Library) holds a book of hours called Horae ad usum Parisiensem, which seems to have belonged to Agnes of Bourgogne (ab. 1405 – 1476). Indeed, a certain number of elements link it to manuscripts that were made in meridional Netherlands in XVth century : its composition, employed technics for its realization, and the illuminations’ iconography illustrating it.

folio 13r

Horae ad usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prays, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°13r

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

We must first remind what is a book of Hours : it is a devotion book used by seculars during the Middle Age, in a private setting. It gathers prays and rituals that rhythm the hours of the day and the calendar of the year. This kind of book had a big success in XVth and XVIth centuries, in which it is going to gradually substitute breviaries and psalters. Indeed, it is easily declinable in its texts and in its decorations, lending itself to all desires, accessible to every purses,  depending on its quality (very variable) and its execution time limit. The historian of art, L.M.J. Delaissé, consider thereby this book as the « best-seller » of the Middle Age.

General Presentation of the manuscript Latin 1183 from the BnF

Let’s first rapidly present Agnes of Bourgogne : she burned around 1405, and deaded in 1476 ; she was the sister of the  Duke of Bourgogne, Philippe III, also called « the Kind » (1396 – 1467), a great bibliophile. In 1425, she married Charles Ist, son of Jean I of Bourbon, duke of Bourbon and Auvergne, who deaded in 1456. Widow, Agnes sojourned for nine years in the bourguignon territory, trying to bring closer Bourbon and Bourgogne Houses. She returned in Bourbonnais in 1465, where she stayed intel her death, supervised by the King of France, Louis XI : he swooped her to conspire against him with her nephew, Charles the Temeraire. Anyway, what is interesting us in that case, is principally her bibliophile relations with her brother, Philippe the Kind, who apparently offered her this book of hours.

Capture d_écran 2018-05-02 à 11.17.43

Dukes of Bourgogne family tree, from Philip the Hardy to Charles the Temeraire

Image : © Thérèse Kempf

The manuscript Latin 1183 from the BnF was realized in meridional Netherland around 1460-65 ; it is made of 164 folios. The text is in latin, except two French prays. We can observe in this manuscripts canons of luxury bourguignon books which gradually prevailed, thanks to Philippe the Kind mecenat : executed on parchment, large format presentation, spaced layout, use of the Bourguignon Bastard (type of writing mixing Gothic texture and Gothic cursive, and which will develop in the XIVth century in France and in Netherlands), bookbinding of good quality.

folio 23 r & v

Horae ad usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prays, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°23r & f°23v

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

écrituresGothique Tertura, Gothique  Cursive and Bourguignon Bastard

Image : © Thérèse Kempf

The script of this manuscript seems to have been realized by David Aubert’s Hand, transcriber and compiler writer ; between 1458 and 1467, he worked almost exclusively for Philippe the Kind ; effectively, the handwriting of the Horae ad asum Parisiensem is similar to other books executed by David Aubert, as Visions of knight Tondal, manuscript written in 1475.

david aubert

Horae ad usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prays, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°23v (détail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

Visions of knight Tondal, written by David Aubert, 1475, J. Paul Getty Museum, ms 30, f°17

Image Source : Visions of knight Tondal

However, one thing differs this manuscript from those realized at the same period in meridional Netherlands : the illuminations’ number. Indeed, if Flemish manuscripts from XVth century are usually profusely illustrated, the tin 1183 only includes twelve miniatures. They are made in the half page, in grayness (ton over ton painting, using gray camaïeux, very fashionable in luxury Parisian manuscripts, from 1350 to 1380 ; this king of painting appears in Bourgogne in 1460) ; illuminations are enhanced with gold (religious and liturgical patterns), blue for the sky, and sometimes slightly colored stains for pavings. A thin and golden frame surrounds miniatures and the text bellow. The border is decorated in illustrated folios, and also handled with grayness and blue and gold enhancements. The miniatures’ style highly recalls Jean Le Tavernier’s one (actif from 1434 to 1460), considered as the grayness master, and also one of favorite illuminators or Philppe the Kind (this one entrusted him his most expensive books, as his Books of Hours or his Breviaire).

tavernier

Horae ad usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prays, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°35r

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

Presentation of the book to Philippe the Kind, in Charlemagne’s Conquestes and croniques,  by David Aubert (transcriber) and Jean Le Tavernier (illuminator), ar. 1458-60, Bruxelles, KRB, ms 9066, f°11

Image Source : BnF – exposition ‘Les miniatures flamandes »

This book of hours also contains a calendar (folios 1 to 12), whose composition must be noticed : indeed, while it is of Parisian type, it includes several Flemish celebrations, following the model of the calendar from Great Hours of Philippe the Hardy,  whose Philippe the Kind adapted the codex for his own use, in years 1440-50 ; nowadays, only three manuscripts adopt this calendar  : the Book of Hours and prays of Agnes of Bourgogne, the Book of Hours of Philippe the Kind (realized around 1454), and the Hours of Jacques of Bregilles (a neighbor of the duke of Bourgogne).

calendriers

Calendars, first pages of month of July, in Great Hours of Philippe the Hardy, Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, ms 3-1954 f°7r ; Book of Hours of Philippe the Kind, La Haye, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, ms 76 F 2, f°7r ; Book of Hours and prays of Agnes of Bourgogne, Paris, BnF, mLatin 1183, f°7r

Image Source : Art de l’enluminure n°29

To finish this first approach of this manuscript, let’s interest in the recipient of this book of hours : we noticed that several elements lead us up to close environment of Philip the Kind. Two miniatures  allow us to see further, folios 118 recto and 55 recto.

folios 118 et 55

Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Book fo Hours and prays of Agnès of Bourgogne, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°118r et f°55r

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

In the first folio, the martyr of Saint Eutrope, bishop of Orange around 400, who may have been directly attached to the Bourgogne dynasty. So does his presence seem to be a dynastic claim. In the second folio, we descover a noble woman, kneeling, presented by saint Agnes (we recognize her attributes : the martyr’s palm and the lamb) to two angels carrying a monstrance contains the Holy Sacrament. Besides saint Agnes presence, other elements lead us to Agnes of Bourgogne : the monstrance recalls Dijon Holy Chapel’s one, which conserved the Miraculous Host, offered to Philip the Kind in 1433 by Pope Eugene IV. Furthermore, the face of the woman may remind the one of Agnes of Bourgogne’s recumbent, in Souvigny priory church.

monstrance et gisant agnes de bourgogne

Holy Host’s reliquary, end of XVIIth century, engraving, Dijon, Fine Arts museum

Image Source : MBA Dijon

Marble tomb of CharlesIth, duke of Bourgogne , and Agnes of Bourgogne (detail), Souvigny

Image Source : L’art de l’enluminure n°29

The twelve illuminations of manuscript Latin 1183 (BnF)

The twelve miniatures illustrating manuscript Latin 1183 are divided between the Hours for every days (seven miniatures), Penance Psalms (one miniature), and Suffrages and several prays ( four miniatures).

Except the Pentecost and Saints assembly, scenes are not much populated, the accent being put on the principal subject, creating equilibrate images. Compositions often take place under a blue sky with scattered clouds made of white swirls, that we also can find in other works of Le Tavernier. Three scenes take place in a church, whose stones appliance, nude and without decor, is neatly made ; it is the same thing for pavements in perspective which adopte various patterns. Shadows on the ground are strongly marked, white touches helping for faces’ design, clothes’ bends, tissues’ ornamental patterns, furnitures’ optical illusion deco, vegetal patterns, or trees’ leafs.

In the first miniature; for Trinity Hours for Sunday, we see God the Father front, sat in a cathedra, under a pavilion ; bordures are held by the archangels Gabriel (whose attribute is a brach of lily) and Michael (whose attribute is a sword) ; God holds in his hands, in front of Him, his Son attached to the cross ; its base rests on the terrestrial orb, and Holy Spirit’s dove placed on the wood crossing. This is the representation of Throne of Grace, a theme which was particularly appreciated in Bourgogne. We also find it in Turin’s Hours, by an artist from Jan van Eyck’s workshop, in the Breviair of Philip the Kind, by Willem Vrelant, and in the Prayer book of Philip the Kind, by Jean Dreux.

folio 13r détail

Trinity Hours for Sunday, in Hororae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°13r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

trone de grace

God the Father in majesty, illuminator from Jan van Eyck’s circle (Master H), Turin Hours (destroyed), f° 13

Image Source : L’art de l’enluminure n°29

Throne of Grace, Philip the Kind’s Book of Prayers, ar. 1461-67, Paris, NAF 16428, f°43

Image Source : L’art de l’enluminure n°29

Holy Trinity and Tetramorph symbols, Philip the Kind’s Breviary, to the used of Paris, ar. 1460-65, Bruxelles, KRB, ms 9026, f°1

Image Source : BnF – exposition « Les miniatures flamandes »

The second miniature, for Deceased’s Hours for Monday, at folio 3r, presents the celebration of a mass of dyings in a chapel, whose disposition reminds another miniature made by Le Tavernier, Singing mass with Philip the Kind presence, in Sunday oration Treaty : on the left, a priest celebrates mass in a private chapel, in front of an altar on which is put an altarpiece of the Crucifixion. In the foreground  crying people from behind, kind of composition often used. A layman, also from behind, is kneeling in front of the altar, but we can not identify him. We notice the the cercueil is cover with no draperies where could have been represented the recipient of the book (whereas it still was a current use).

folio 23r détail

Deads Hours for Monday, Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°23r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

heures des defunts

Deads Hours fo Monday, Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°23r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

Philip the Kind assisting to a singing massTreaty of the Sunday Oration, aft. 1457, Bruxelles, KRB, ms. 9092, f°9

Image Source : BnF – exposition « Les miniatures flamandes »

A relative current theme was chose for Holy Spirit Hours for Tuesday : Pentecost. Holy Spirit dove, above the assembly, diffuses golden flames which rejoin golden nimbes of the apostles and the Virgin ; only two apostles are identifiable in the foreground : saint Peter on the left , and saint John on the right.

folio 35r détail

Holy Spirit Hours for Tuesday, Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°35r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

For All saints Hours for Wednesday, the theme is interesting : indeed, saints’ assembly with Trinity is generally represented ; however, in this case, only some saints have been assembled around a Virgin with the Child ; it adapts another theme often used, the one of the Virgin surrounded by saint virgins. Saint Peter is also present in the foreground, on the left, saint Catherine is behind Maria, with her brocken wheel, and maybe is represented saint Adrian, with his helmet.

folio 45r détail

All Saints Hours for Wednesday, Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°45r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

The fifth miniature, designated to Holy Sacrament Hours for Thursday, which we already saw previously, presents two angels who recall the scene of the Annunciation in a book of Hours hold in Vienna, also made in grayness : faces with heavy eyelids, forms of angels’ wings, identical handles’ drawings and forms.

folio 55r détail

Holy Sacrament Hours for Thursday, Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°55r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

heures du saint sacrement

Assomption, Obsecro te, Book of Hours, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, S.n. 13240, f°118v

Image Source : L’art de l’enluminure, n°29

All Saints Hours for Wednesday, Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°55r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

Cross Hours for Friday are following : crucifixion is pictured in a classical form : the Christ is between the two robbers, the Virgin is supported by saint John on the left, on the right two Jewishes (recognizable to their hats) ; a centurion is seen  from behind, wearing bourgeois clothes, and crossing his legs, in order to simulate walking. We may notice the conversely of the good and the bad robber’s position : this sprain to the rule can also be found in the Descent from the Cross of the Master of Flemalle  who, according to specialists, has influenced Le Tavernier. On the background, un medieval city was represented, including by this way the scene un a contemporain context, reflect of the Devotion moderna, very fashionable in Flandres in the XVth century.

folio 65r détail

Cross’ Hours for Friday, Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°65r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

wpba554094

Master of Flemalle, Seilern Tritych (detail), 1410-20, oil on wood, Londres, Courtauld Gallery

Image Source : Web Gallery of Art

A Virgin with the Child is pictured in a closed garden for Virgin’s Hours for Saturday ; the wall symbolizes Virgin’s virginity, the pillow on which she is sitting her humility ; she us listening to an angel playing harp, form of composition that we can find in other miniatures made by Jean Le Tavernier, like in manuscript NAL 3225 held in the BnF, where the Virgin is surrounded by several musician angels. It is a layout frequently used at this period.

folio 80r détail

Virgin’s Hours for SaturdayHorae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°80r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

vierge à l'enfant dans un jardin clos - jean le tavernier -v. 1450 - Paris - BnF - NAL 3225 f°24

The Virgin and Child in a closed garden, by Jean Le Tavernier, ar. 1450, Paris, BnF, NAL 3225, f°24

Image Source : L’art de l’enluminure n°29

Rather Last Judgment, Christ Judge is represented for Penance Psalms : set on a rainbow between two angels playing trumpet, the Christ is begged by two intercessor saints knelling on the ground, the Virgin and saint John the Baptist (that we recognize with his garment in camel furs). Four dead men go out from their tombs (the man on the right, with his tonsure, might be a monk). We find the same composition layout in an illumination made by Jean Le Tavernier in God’s City.

folio 90r détail

Penitential PsalmsHorae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, v. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°90r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

cité de dieu jugement dernier

Last JudgmentThe City of God, Strasbourg, Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire, ms 0523, f°259v (detail)

Image Source : Bibliothèque Virtuelle des Manuscrits Médiévaux (BVMM)

We saw it before, the prayer for saint Eutrope represents the saint’s martyr, killed by axe’s blows on the order of roman governor (this scene was probably inspired from the representation of Thomas of Canterbury’s martyr) ; the execution of the saint takes place in a church, in front of an altar where is an altarpiece ; the governor and the soldier are both represented in contemporary clothes, which recalls ones more Devotio Moderna. As said before, representations of this saint are rare and intimately linked to the dukes of Bourgogne, like for example in Charles the Temaraire’s Prayer book.

folio 118r détail

Prayer to saint EutropeHorae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°118r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

martyr st eutrope

Saint Eutrope curing invalids, Prayer Book of Charles the Teméeaire, Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, ms 37, f°41v (detail)

Image Source : L’art de l’enluminure, n°29

The choice of The cross’ carrying to illustrate a prayer to the Christ must once more be linked to Devotio moderna, which encouraged believers to take example on Christ and  carry their own cross. So must we, in this case, take example on Simon of Cyrene, on the left, who is helping the Christ ; Saint Veronica, who is presenting a sail in order to mop up Christ’s face, maybe testifies of a devotion towards the saint woman. More singular and picturesque is the presence of a trumpet ringer at the « procession ».

folio 138r détail

Prayer to the ChristHorae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°138r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

A prayer to the Virgin presents a Descent from the cross, where Christ’s mother holds in her arms her son’s body, stiffed because of death ; this recalls Miraflores Triptych, made by Rogier Van der Weyden : two knelling cryers are around the group, saint John on the left, and saint Mary Magdalene (that we can identify to her elegant clothes) on the right.

folio 142r détail

Prayer to the Virgin, Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°142r (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

triptyque miraflores

Rogier van der Weyden, Miraflores Triptych (central pannel), ar. 1440, oil on wood, 71 x 43 cm, Staatliche Museen, Berlin

Image Source : Web Gallery of Art

The last miniature illustrates a prayer to the Christ, with the theme of the Lamentation ; once more, the artist takes inspiration on a painting, from Petrus Christus. However, Nicodeme and Joseph of Arimathea have been reversed : this choice can be explained by Ludolphe the Carthusian’s interpretations, who explains that Nicodeme was a literate man, almost a priest, and so was he worthy of take in his hands Christ’s head. Another difference between the folio 65 and Petrus Christus’ painting are the two robbers’ positions : the bad one, on the left, seems to suffer a bit less.

folio 144v détail

Prayer to the Christ, Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°144v (detail)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

petrus christus lamentation

Petrus Christus, Lamentation, 1450, tempera and oil on wood, 26 x 36 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York

Image Source : Web Gallery of art

The iconographic cycle of manuscript Latin 1183 

If certains themes used here are recurrent in books of hours, however the iconographic cycle is not usual : several choices reveal a particular devotion for the Cross, the Passion, and more generally for Corpus Christi. The first sign of this particular devotion is the miniature on folio 55 : we can see a prying woman in front of the h-Holy Sacrament, which is a theme rarely depicted, and  probably  an allusion to the worship of the Holy Host in Dijon. Crucifixion is also presented in painted altarpieces in folio 23 (deads’ mass scene) and in folio 118 (martyr of saint Eutrope).

crucifixion retables

Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°23r et 118r (details)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

Miniatures in folios 138, 142 and 144 insist more on Christ’s suffering and Virgin’s pain : in each case, the cross take the central place in the image, reminding in an obvious way the Crucified in folios 13 and 65.

croix au centre

Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f° 138r, 142r et 144v (details)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

crist en croix

Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°13r et 65r (details)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

The attitude of the Virgin, bended because of pain, is painted in the exactly same way in folios 65 and 144, in whose she occupies a central place in front of the empty Cross. We can notice the repetition of robbers’ pattern in both scene, which  recalls an eschatological thought by reminding  to believers Heavenly Judgment,  remission of offenses and penitence. In this way, in the last miniature, the one who recognized the Christ has his head bended, as sign of repentance, looking through the Christ ; this one has been moved down from the cross, and is stretched out and exhibited in an ostentatious way. This presentation of the Christ body closes the miniatures’ cycle, and invites the reader to contemplation, insisting on devotional symbolism.

folios 65 et 144

Horae ad Usum Parisiensem or Agnes of Bourgogne’s Book of Hours and Prayers, ar. 1460-65, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1183, f°65r et 144r (details)

Image Source : Horae ad usum Parisiensem

In conclusion, everything permits to imagine that Agnes of Bourgogne, duchess of Bourbon, was the recipient of this book of Hours, and the first who possessed it. It seems that she got this beautiful book of hours and prayers when she stayed in bourguignon Netherlands between 1462 and 1465 ; we also can suppose that her brother, Philip the Kind, asked its realization for her. The script might have been done by David Aubert, who was working for the Duke at this period ; the manuscript should allow to Agnes to adapt herself, in her prayers, to Bourgogne’s Court and to her host country. The miniatures present in this book recalls Jean Le Tavernier’s style and patterns, but are actually considered as made by an anonymous person. Anyway, this manuscript has his total place in the production of manuscripts in bourguignon Netherlands and in the collections of the most prestigious  groups of the Bourgogne and Bourbon’s Court. September

Therese Kempf

UPJV – M2 Histoire de l’art

Bibliography :

Sophie CASSAGNES-BROUQUET, Book’s passion in the Middle Age, Rennes, éditions Ouest-France, 2003

Thierry CREPIN-LEBLOND (dir.), Royal Books of Hours – manuscripts’ painting in France’s Court at Henry II time, exhibition catalogue (Castel of Ecouen, National Museum of the Renaissance, 23 September – 13 December 1993), Paris, Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1993

Jean VILBAS, Books of Hours at the use of Amiens and several other places…, exhibition catalogue (Amiens, City Library, 30 November 1998 – 27 February 1999), Amiens, 1999

« Le Livre-d’heures d’Agnès de Bourgogne », Art de l’enluminure, n°29n juin-juillet-août 2009

Webography :

BnF – Gallica – Horae ad usum Parisiensem

Fiche BnF du manuscrit Latin 1183

« Les miniatures flamandes« , exposition organisée par la BnF et la Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique, Paris, 06 mars – 10 juin 2012

Site de la Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique, La librairie des ducs de Bourgogne – Manuscrits conservés à la Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique

Dominique ALLARD (dir.), Les Heures de Tavernier, KBR, ms. IV 1290, Bruxelles, Fondation du Roi Baudoin, 2002

Bibliothèque virtuelle des manuscrits médiévaux

Votre commentaire

Entrez vos coordonnées ci-dessous ou cliquez sur une icône pour vous connecter:

Logo WordPress.com

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte WordPress.com. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Photo Google

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Google. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Image Twitter

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Twitter. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Photo Facebook

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Facebook. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Connexion à %s